Làng tỷ phú ở Phú Thọ đang rơi vào bế tắc, nhà nào cũng ôm một đống nợ

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‘Ở đây nhà nào cũng nợ, ít thì vài trăm, nhiều thì 5-7 tỷ đồng, cứ tình hình này chắc phải bán nhà mà trả nợ thôi’, ông Nguyễn Hữu Thuật, Trưởng làng nghề nuôi rắn Tứ Xã buồn bã tâm sự.

Làng nghề nuôi rắn hổ mang Tứ Xã (huyện Lâm Thao, tỉnh Phú Thọ) được hình thành từ những năm 1993. Sau thời gian phát triển mạnh, năm 2007, nơi đây chính thức được công nhận là làng nghề.

Giai đoạn cực thịnh của làng nghề nuôi rắn Tứ Xã là những năm 2010. Khi đó, mỗi năm, tổng khối lượng rắn xuất khẩu thương thẩm là hơn trăm tấn rắn hổ mang với giá bán 700.000 – 800.000 đồng/con.

Nhà nào cũng nợ, ít thì vài trăm, nhiều thì 5-7 tỷ đồng

Nhà nào cũng nợ, ít thì vài trăm, nhiều thì 5-7 tỷ đồng

Nhà nào cũng nợ, ít thì vài trăm, nhiều thì 5-7 tỷ đồng

Nhà nào cũng nợ, ít thì vài trăm, nhiều thì 5-7 tỷ đồng

Nhờ nuôi rắn, trước đây nhiều hộ dân ở Tứ Xã đã đổi đời, thành triệu phú, tỷ phú, xây nhà kiên cố, sắm vật dụng đắt tiền

Sang đến năm 2016, làng nghề chuyển mô hình từ nuôi rắn hổ mang thương phẩm sang nuôi rắn hổ mang sinh sản do nhu cầu thị trường tăng mạnh. Thời điểm rực rỡ nhất, các hộ nuôi rắn hổ mang xuất cả trăm vạn trứng và rắn con sang Trung Quốc.

Thậm chí các thương lái từ Lạng Sơn, Móng Cái về ăn ngủ tại làng để tìm kiếm nguồn hàng. Giá trứng rắn hổ mang cao điểm nhất vào năm 2018 lên đến 80.000 đồng/quả.

Sở dĩ thị trường Trung Quốc thu mua trứng rắn, rắn hổ mang giống mạnh tay như vậy do phong tục, sở thích ăn thịt rắn với thực đơn các món đa dạng về rắn. Thậm chí, theo một người dân Tứ Xã cho hay, ở Trung Quốc có những tiệc cưới chỉ dùng thịt rắn với lượng tiêu thụ lên đến hàng tấn.

Nhưng nay, nhiều hộ phải thu hẹp quy mô nuôi rắn hổ mang, thậm chí là bỏ chuồng không vì càng nuôi càng lỗ

Trong giai đoạn đó, làng nghề đã xuất hiện nhiều tỷ phú nắm trong tay vài nghìn con rắn hổ mang đang thời kỳ sinh sản, mỗi tháng xuất đi hàng tấn trứng và rắn con. Qua đó, kinh tế xã hội của địa phương cũng được cải thiện rõ rệt. Nhà cao cửa rộng mọc lên san sát, đường sá cũng được người dân bỏ tiền ra xây sửa, cải tạo, đời sống của người dân được nâng cao.

Thế nhưng, cơn bão dịch Covid-19 tràn qua Trung Quốc, rồi “hoàn lưu” bão dịch Covid-19 quét qua các làng tỷ phú nuôi rắn hổ mang của Việt Nam đã khiến cả làng nghề điêu đứng vì rắn. Thị trường lớn nhất là Trung Quốc hiện nay bị đóng băng vì lệnh cách ly, các cửa khẩu Móng Cái, Lạng Sơn “nội bất xuất, ngoại bất nhập” đối với mặt hàng rắn hổ mang, trứng rắn hổ mang. Còn trong nước, nơi tiêu thụ nhiều nhất là các khu du lịch ở phía Nam đông khách Trung Quốc nay cũng giảm đi đáng kể do vắng khách.

Trở lại Tứ Xã sau 1 năm, PV Dân Việt kinh ngạc vì sự vắng vẻ, đìu hiu, buồn bã ở khắp đường làng, ngõ xóm, trong các gia đình không còn tiếng cười nói của người dân, tiếng xe cộ tấp nập ra vào.

“Giá trứng rắn hổ mang bây giờ tụt thê thảm lắm. Cuối năm ngoái, còn được 45.000 – 55.000 đồng/quả, năm nay thì vô giá (không có giá). Chúng tôi bây giờ phải bán tháo 3.000 đồng/quả trứng rắn hổ mang mà còn chẳng ai mua. Bĩ cực quá, người dân phải hủy trứng không cho nở, không thì đổ hết xuống ao, có nhà còn hấp lên ăn dần. Xót lắm, nó là kế sinh nhai, nuôi cả gia đình bao lâu nay, bây giờ khác gì tự chặt đi cái tay cái chân của mình đâu, nhưng không hủy thì lấy đâu tiền mà nuôi…”, Nguyễn Hữu Thuật, Trưởng làng nghề nuôi rắn hổ mang Tứ Xã buồn bã tâm sự.

Ở Tứ Xã, rắn nuôi chủ yếu là rắn hổ mang phì, trọng lượng khoảng 2- 3kg là xuất, thời gian nuôi khoảng 2 năm. Thức ăn chủ yếu của rắn hổ mang là gà, cá, vịt loại mua gom từ khắp nơi ở miền Bắc, trong các trại gà của nhà nước và tư nhân. Trước kia, cứ 4 – 5 ngày cho rắn hổ mang ăn một bữa, giờ thì hàng chục ngày mới cho ăn một lần vì càng cho ăn càng tốn tiền”, ông Thuật chia sẻ.

Ngay cả cửa hàng rắn to nhất Tứ Xã cũng trong tình trạng cửa đóng then cài vì ít thực khách đến thưởng thức món này.

Cũng theo ông Thuật, đến nay 1/4 số hộ nuôi rắn đã bỏ nghề, đi làm thuê, làm mướn, thậm chí bán nhà, bỏ xứ mà đi.

Đáng nói hơn, hiện nay, không có lối ra nào cho người dân vì thị trường rắn hổ mang phụ thuộc hết vào Trung Quốc. Cả làng giờ không ai dám “gối” rắn giống, vì không biết được thị trường tới đây như thế nào. Kéo theo đó là nhân công giảm đáng kể, nguồn thu ngày càng bấp bênh. Chừng nào dịch Covid-19 còn diễn biến mạnh, thị trường đóng băng thì các hộ nuôi còn khổ. Mong muốn lớn nhất của người dân lúc này là nhà nước có chính sách hỗ trợ người dân giãn nợ, giảm lãi suất ngân hàng để người dân tìm đầu ra xoay vòng vốn.

Theo ý kiến của nhiều hộ dân Tứ Xã, nếu không có sự “ra tay hỗ trợ” kịp thời của các cấp chính quyền, các ngành viễn cảnh người dân lâm vào cảnh nợ nần, trắng tay, làng nghề Tứ Xã vì thế mà teo tóp, tàn lụi sẽ không còn xa.

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